Concrete is one of most popular building and renovation materials. Its affordability, flexibility, and possibility to ensure required properties of the mortar, provide ample opportunities for nearly unlimited designs.

Concrete can be differentiated by bonding agent, mean density, aggregate size, strength, and application (intended use).

Concrete types by bonding agent:

  • Silicate concrete
  • Gypsum concrete
  • Cement concrete
  • Polymer cement concrete
  • Lime-slag concrete

Composite concrete may be based on more than one bonding agent.

Special concrete is a particular mixture which meets challenging or extraordinary performance requirements:

  • Concrete with radiation protection additives
  • Heat resistant concrete
  • Freeze-resistant concrete
  • Waterproof concrete
  • Acid-proof concrete
  • Super heavy concrete for nuclear power plants

Coloured concrete for decorative applications can be regarded special as well.

Concrete grades by strength:

  • Lightweight or low-density concrete with density max. 1800 kg/m3
  • Heavyweight or high-density concrete with density between 1800 kg/m3 and 2500 kg/m3
  • Superheavy concrete with density above 2500 kg/m3

Concrete grades by compressive strength:

  • М100 to М600 (rated in kgf/cm3)
  • B7.5 to B45 (rated in MPa)

Concrete types by aggregate size:

  • Fine-grained concrete (grain size 3-10)
  • Medium-grained concrete (grain size 5-20)
  • Coarse-grained concrete (grain size 20-40)

In addition, concrete can be rated for either exterior or interior applications. Concrete for exterior application includes:

  • Reinforced concrete — combination of concrete and reinforcement steel
  • Silicate concrete — compound of lime and silica components, quartz or spore (thermally treated silica stone)
  • Asphalt concrete — compound of bitumen, sand, gravel, and mineral power
  • Waterproof concrete — material with water permeability reducing additives
  • Expanded clay concrete — lightweight concrete with expanded clay aggregate (porous ceramic pellets)
  • Perlite concrete — lightweight concrete with perlite aggregate (perlite – igneous rock)
  • Tuff concrete — concrete with volcanic tuff aggregate

Concrete for interior applications includes:

  • Gypsum concrete — gypsum based compounf (no cement)
  • Plastic concrete / polymer concrete — concrete with polymer bonding agent
  • Pumice concrete — concrete with natural pumice aggregate
  • Cellular concrete — autoclaved aerated concrete, foam concrete