Paint & Coatings
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Paint and coatings, or P&Cs, are finishing coatings for construction applications intended to create a protective/decorative film on a treated surface. 

Purpose

  • Protection against corrosion, decay, fungi, pests, fading in the sun, combustion, aggressive chemicals, etc.
  • Creating certain sanitary conditions, cleanliness control
  • Decorative finishing, attractive appearance, implementation of designer’s creativity

Classification

There is a wide range of paints and coatings, including, but not limited to:

  • Paints: by composition are classified as limewater colours, distempers, cement paints, water-glass paints, water-dispersible paints, aqueous emulsion paints, latex paints, oil paints, alkyd paints
  • Lacquers: applied directly to the substrate or a paint coating in order to improve gloss
  • Colorants: tinting/tainting additives to paints and coatings
  • Solvents: used to make paints and coatings with required viscosity or properties
  • Primers: applied directly to the base surface in order to provide protection and adhesion to subsequent coatings
  • Enamels: rich coloured compounds which thicken when subjected to UV light or mixed with hardeners/plasticisers
  • Treatment and preservative materials
  • Putty: dense compounds used to level a surface and to fill cavities prior to finishing paint or coating

Properly selected paint/coating is the key to good look, robustness and lasting protection of the treated surface of structures or individual elements. The materials may be classified by various criteria.

Intended substrate/base material

  • Metal
  • Wood
  • Stone, brick, silicate materials

Application

  • Outdoor
  • Indoor

Composition

  • P&Cs based on thermoplastic film-forming agents (bituminous varnish, cellulose ether varnish) 
  • P&Cs based on thermosetting film-forming agents (polyester varnish, polyurethane varnish)
  • Vegetable oil based P&Cs (linseed oils, oil varnish, oil paints)
  • Modified oil based P&Cs (alkyd resin based alkyd varnish)

Showing through of the base surface

  • Paint is an opaque coating that tinctures a certain colour to the surface. Paint consists of a binder, pigments and special additives to render particular properties to the surface (texture, relief, protective ability, etc.)
  • Varnish is a transparent material that leaves visible the pattern and colour of the base surface. Varnish consists of a film-making agent, small amount of pigment (as the case may be) and various additives to render special properties

Performance properties

  • Waterproof and weather resistant materials
  • Oil/fuel resistant materials
  • Acid and alkali resistant materials
  • Heat resistant materials
  • Electrical insulating materials
  • Preservative materials
  • Special materials: reflective, temperature indicating, anti-fouling, acoustic, etc.