Ventilation is intended to maintain permanent inflow of fresh air into the rooms and to remove exhaust air.

Ventilation systems can be differentiated by various parameters.

Ventilation system types by circulation method

  • Natural ventilation: air flows by itself through windows, doors and exhaust outlets, driven by the natural air circulation as well as differences between indoor and outdoor temperatures and pressures.
  • Forced (artificial or mechanical) ventilation: fresh air is forced into the room and removed by dedicated equipment.

Ventilation system types by application

  • Plenum ventilation system with forced fresh air inflow and natural exhaust air outflow.
  • Exhaust ventilation system with forced exhaust air outflow and natural fresh air inflow.
  • Plenum-and-exhaust ventilation system with forced air inflow and outflow.

Ventilation system types by coverage

  • Local ventilation intended to supply and remove air to/from a particular zone of premises.
  • General ventilation intended to change air in the entire premises.

Ventilation system types by design

  • Ducted ventilation systems which, due to massive design, are generally applicable to large buildings and installed during construction; consist of air ducts (vents) and a central air handling unit.
  • Ductless ventilation systems with compact blowers instead of air ducts which make them applicable to compact residential premises.
  • Single-unit ventilation systems with various components integrated into a single unit.
  • Multiple-unit ventilation systems consisting of separately installed independent components.

Ventilation system types by extended features

  • Heating ventilation systems.
  • Ventilation systems with dust, gas, volatile vapour removal capability.
  • Ventilation systems with noise reduction capability.

Ventilation equipment

A ventilation system consists of the following components:

  • Fans — vane devices to force air in/out.
  • Air intake grilles intended to keep large foreign objects out of the system.
  • Air filters intended to filter fine foreign matters and dust out.
  • Air valves intended to control air inlet to the system.
  • Air heaters intended to warm the inlet air up.
  • Cooling units intended to cool the supplied air down.
  • Recuperative heat exchangers intended to warm the fresh air up heat transfer from exhaust outlet air.
  • Vents — air delivery ducts of whatever shape, section, design, material, etc.
  • Noise absorbers to reduce the noise from running fans.
  • Air distribution devices intended to evenly distribute inflow air and evenly remove exhaust air.
  • Fittings (adapters, manifolds, elbows) required to unite all units into an integrated system.
  • Control system — controls intended to enable/disable the whole system or individual functions.